Language

LANGUAGE OF ARGUMENT

Introduce different perspectives

  • Looking through the lens of …
  • Adopting a more macro perspective …
  • In the larger scheme of things …
  • In the long run/short term …
  • In the political realm…
  • Looking at the (economic) aspect of …

Introduce alternate views / counter-arguments

  • One may argue that …
  • Critics claim that …
  • Naysayers decry… (E.g. Naysayers decry the loss of culture in society)
  • Ultra pragmatists / conservatives / radicals / luddites may assert that …
  • While [Subject/Example] is commonly cited by opponents of … to prove that … (E.g. While reality TV is commonly cited by opponents of television programmes to prove that …)
  • Detractors often bemoan the state of …
  • Skeptics often justify their arguments by stating that …

Refute alternate views / counter-arguments

  • However, such a view fails to consider that…
  • In spite of … there still is/are …
  • This argument / view does not take into account …
  • This perspective / approach is untenable because
  • This argument is based on shaky grounds …
  • However, practically speaking / in reality …
  • Such an argument / This is a blanket generalization because …
  • This seemingly impregnable argument is easily broken down by examining how…
  • It is certainly unfair to conclude that …
  • Unfortunately, the truth is far more complex.
  • Such a perspective is far too simplistic …
  • The flawed assumption here is that …
  • However, the evidence is insufficient to conclude that …
  • Ultimately, it is premature to conclude that …
  • This perspective is increasingly unfeasible today because…

Make concessions

  • While … is true, one must recognize that there are limitations …
  • Although it is undeniable that …, it is more reasonable to suggest that …
  • Even though one must acknowledge …, the more convincing/logical claim is that…
  • Nonetheless, an exception lies in those … (E.g. Nonetheless, an exception lies in those countries which are unable … )

Reinforce your argument

  • Moreover, it can be asserted that …
  • Besides, this is further reinforced by …
  • Furthermore, one should realize that …
  • In fact, even … (E.g. In fact, even technology created for frivolous ends has surprisingly led to..)
  • However, in spite of the flaws, X still remains more desirable …
  • Ultimately, X is more important (e.g. – in terms of its ability to…) 

Words Related to Effectiveness
Potent, Prolific, Successful, Productive, Efficient

Words Related to Relevance
Applicable, Suitable, Pertinent, Apt, Appropriate,

Words Related to Cause/Effect
Origin, Trigger, Develop, Determinant, Outcome, Consequence, Induce, Determine,
Aftermath, Repercussion, Inspire, Result, Create, Produce, Generate

Words Related to Positive Change
Improvement, Enrichment, Progress, Advancement, Benefit, Development, Betterment, Refinement, Elevation, Reform

Words Related to Negative Change
Loss, Harm, Toll, Ruin, Deprivation, Undoing, Defeat, Downfall, Reversion, Decay, Cost, Decline

Words Related to Degree
Intense, Extensive, Priority, Eminent, Drastic, Extreme, Lasting, Vigorous, Urgent, Strong, Restrained, Moderate

Words Related to Importance
Significant, Deserving, Valuable, Invaluable, Pivotal, Worthwhile, Imperative, Prominent, Crucial, Essential, Vital

Words Related to Superiority
Central, Primary, Fundamental, Key, Supreme, Unsurpassed

Words Related to Relationships
Interrelated, Connected, Unified, Reciprocal, Mutual, Dependent, Coinciding, Correlated, Regarding, Pertaining

Words Related to Truth
Actual, Verified, Accurate, Legitimate, Genuine, Reliable, Sincere, Authentic

Words Related to Uniqueness
Novel, Original, Characteristic, Atypical, Distinctive, Exceptional

GRAMMAR

Subject-verb agreement

 The presence of foreign powers have led to the benefit of many developing countries.
√ The presence of foreign powers has led to the benefit of many developing countries.

‘Has’ is the correct form to use because the head noun (simply, the subject) is ‘presence’, not ‘foreign powers’.

Sentence fragments

‘Fragments’ are incomplete sentences that do not have the ‘Subject Verb Object’ (Deer-eats-grass= ‘Deer’ is the subject executing the action ‘eats’  on something – ‘grass’) sentence structure.

For example, Libya (x)  Where companies profit from medical breakthroughs (x) [so? what happens?]

Be careful when using the ‘Wh’ – which, when, where . The phrase then becomes a dependent clause and cannot stand alone. It forms a subject and there must be a verb and a complemet attached to it.

X He received his verdict. Thus leading to a whole new beginning.
√ He received his verdict. Thus, this led him to a whole new beginning.
√ He received his verdict, thus leading him to a whole new beginning.

Run-on lines

X Capitalism has long-term benefits, however there are drawbacks.
√ Capitalism has long-term benefits. However, there are also drawbacks.
Run-ons occur when two independent clauses are linked together with commas (Notice how ‘Capitalism has long term benefits can stand alone because it already contains 1)subject 2)a verb 3)a complement or an outcome)

When using ‘however‘, ‘yet‘ and ‘thus‘ to introduce a new clause, try to start a new sentence instead.

Articles ‘a’ the’

 It is prevalent in the society
√ It is prevalent in society

The definite article (‘the’) is used to refer to a specific object, but in this instance, the writer wishes to refer to society in general. Hence, ‘society’ is used without the definite article.

Common errors

X  Throughout the years of globalisation
√  Through years of globalisation
Throughout is defined as ‘all the way through’ and is used to refer to a specific period (that has already ended). Given that globalisation is for the lack of a better word, “ongoing”, “the” and “throughout” are used incorrectly.

X It’s benefits outnumber it’s drawbacks.
√ Its benefits outnumber its drawbacks.

Spelling Errors

definitely (not ‘definately’)
separate (not ‘seperate’)
portray (not ‘potray’)

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